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Cultural appropriation is what happens when ... people with personal, interpersonal, and institutional power in a racialized society adopt, adapt, claim ownership, and rob people of their traditional cultural practices, cultural adaptations, and innovations to gain personal, reputational, monetary, and institutional advantages within that racialized society. We believe that this is what has been done with the indigenous circle process by many in the restorative, transformative, and healing justice movements. 

Talking Circles originated with First Nations leaders - the process was used to ensure that all leaders in the tribal council were heard, and that those who were speaking were not interrupted. Usually the Chief would initiate the conversation, with other members responding and sharing their perceptions and opinions of the topic under discussion. The process provides an excellent model for interaction within the learning environment as well. It is also very adaptive to any circle of people who need to discuss topics and make decisions together. (



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